Sotgia, Salvatore and Carru, Ciriaco and Pinna, Gérard Aimé and Deiana, Luca and Zinellu, Angelo (2011) D-Penicillamine interferes with S-homocysteinylation and S-cysteinylation of LDL apolipoprotein B. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Vol. 51 (12), p. 1728-1732. ISSN 0091-2700. eISSN 1552-4604. Article.
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Modifications of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol particles (LDLs) are among the principal mechanisms that can play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. It is well known, in fact, that once modified, LDLs increase their atherogenicity, resulting in enhanced uptake by macrophage scavenger receptors that in the long run, leads to the formation of lipid-laden macrophages, or “foam cells,” which are the hallmark of atherosclerotic lesions. Among the atherogenic modifications of LDL, alteration resulting from homocysteinylation of apoB is currently receiving a great deal of attention, as its harmful role is becoming apparent. A type of apoB homocysteinylation, LDL-S-homocysteinylation (Hcy- S-LDL), occurs through the formation of a disulfide bond with protein cysteine residues. Another type, LDL-N-homocysteinylation (Hcy-N-LDL), occurs by post-translational acylation of free amino groups in a reaction mediated by homocysteine thiolactone.
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