Ardalany, Manoochehr and Fragiacomo, Massimo and Carradine, David and Moss, Peter J. (2013) Experimental behavior of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) joists with holes and different methods of reinforcement. Engineering Structures, Vol. 56 , p. 2154-2164. ISSN 0141-0296. eISSN 1873-7323. Article.
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Holes in timber beams used as part of a floor system within a building are often required to allow services (such as electrical and plumbing) to pass through the beams. Cutting holes can initiate cracks that can propagate when beams are loaded, mostly because of low tension strength perpendicular to grain of timber. Crack propagation changes the failure mechanism of beams, and fracture can occur at considerably lower than predicted loads. Reinforcing of timber beams to stop or prevent crack formation or propagation can be accomplished using different methods including glued in screws, fully threaded screws, plywood, and steel plates. The effectiveness of each method depends on many factors such as bonding with the timber, the area covered (for plates or gussets), proximity to the crack surface (for crack control), and mechanisms of stress distribution and transfer.
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