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A Molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Faille, Arnaud and Casale, Achille and Balke, Michael and Ribera, Ignacio (2013) A Molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 13 , [Article] 248. ISSN 1471-2148. Article.

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DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-13-248

Abstract

Background: The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown.
Results: We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism.
Conclusions: The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to ancient, geographically widespread lineages of exclusively subterranean species likely to have diversified once fully adapted to the subterranean environment.

Item Type:Article
ID Code:9672
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords:Alpine subterranean Trechini, Bayesian methods, genus Doderotrechus, genus Trechus, genus Duvalius
Subjects:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/05 Zoologia
Divisions:001 Università di Sassari > 01-a Nuovi Dipartimenti dal 2012 > Scienze della Natura e del Territorio
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2148
Copyright Holders:© 2013 Faille et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Deposited On:11 Mar 2014 09:55

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