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Cost-effectiveness in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: choices in developing countries

Molicotti, Paola and Bua, Alessandra and Zanetti, Stefania Anna Lucia (2014) Cost-effectiveness in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: choices in developing countries. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, Vol. 8 (1), p. 24-38. eISSN 1972-2680. Article.

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DOI: 10.3855/jidc.3295

Abstract

Tuberculosis remains one of the major causes of global death from a single infectious agent. This situation is worsened by the HIV/AIDS pandemic because one-third of HIV/AIDS patients are co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely manner, allowing continued M. tuberculosis transmission within communities. Diagnosis of tuberculosis can be made using indirect and direct methods. The indirect tests, such as interferon-gamma release assays, provide a new diagnostic method for M. tuberculosis infection, but do not discriminate between infection and active disease. The most common direct method for diagnosing TB worldwide is sputum smear microscopy (developed more than 100 years ago), where bacteria are observed in sputum samples examined under a microscope. In countries with more developed laboratory capacities, cases of tuberculosis may also be diagnosed using culture methods (the current gold standard) or, increasingly, using rapid molecular tests. In this review, we discuss the traditional methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. We also discuss other inexpensive assays that can be used to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis.

Item Type:Article
ID Code:9624
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords:Tuberculosis, diagnosis, M. tuberculosis
Subjects:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/07 Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica
Divisions:001 Università di Sassari > 01-a Nuovi Dipartimenti dal 2012 > Scienze Biomediche
Publisher:OLoeP
eISSN:1972-2680
Copyright Holders:© 2014 Molicotti et al.
Deposited On:14 Feb 2014 13:15

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