Leoni, Stefania (2014) Il Contributo della vitamina D nel rischio di sclerosi multipla attraverso la dieta: studio caso-controllo basato su popolazione. Doctoral Thesis.
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Aim: Vitamin D has a key role in MS, by preventing and repairing the myelin damage. Its deficiency is due to lack of sun exposure, diet patterns or a low supplementation. An adequate dietary intake of vitD during adolescence is reported to be protective.
Methods: The international multicentre case–control study of environmental risk factors in MS (EnvIMS Study) aimed to examine the effect of past exposures (diet, sunlight and lifestyle) on the disease risk. An ad hoc postal self-administered questionnaire was used to record exposure to food items in teenage. The intake of vitD was computed by multiplying the amount in a portion by the frequency of intake.
Results: Among 1991 Italian participants (684 cases, 1307 controls) an inverse association was found between MS and consumption of fish/seafood (OR=0.80; 95%IC 0.65-0.97), in particular anchovies and sardines (0.60; 0.40-0.90), mackerel (0.66; 0.48-0.92), and with smoked meat (0.74; 0.58-0.95) and yogurt (0.80; 0.65-0.98) (adjusted for sex, smoke habit, sun exposure and vitD supplementation). A higher estimated overall mean (±SD) intake of vitD was reported in controls vs cases, and through fish consumption.
Conclusions: Dietary patterns show differences between MS patients and age-/sex-matched controls. A higher overall intake of vitD was reported in controls than in cases likely reflecting more frequent consumption of vitD rich fish.
Acknowledgements: FISM 2007/R/14, 2008/R/19.
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