Palma, Amedeo and D'Aquino, Salvatore and Vanadia, S. and Angioni, Alberto and Schirra, Mario (2013) Cold quarantine responses of ‘Tarocco’ oranges to short hot water and thiabendazole postharvest dip treatments. Postharvest biology and technology, Vol. 78 , p. 24-33. eISSN 1873-2356. Article.
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This study investigated the effects of brief hot water and thiabendazole (TBZ) postharvest dip treatments on ultrastructural changes of fruit epicuticular wax (ECW), TBZ residues, decay development and quality traits of ‘Tarocco’ oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbek] subjected to cold quarantine, subsequent simulated transport and shelf-life. Commercially mature fruit were submerged in water at 20 °C (control fruit) or TBZ at 1000 mg/L and 20 °C for 60 s, or in hot water without or with TBZ at 300 mg/L and 53, 56, or 59 °C for 60, 30, and 15 s respectively. Following treatments, fruit were stored for 3 weeks at 1 °C (simulated quarantine conditions for fruit disinfestations against Mediterranean fruit fly, Medfly), followed by 4 days at 3 °C (simulated long distance transport), and finally kept at 20 °C for 3 days (shelf-life, SL). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of ‘Tarocco’ orange surface showed that the typical wax platelets, lifting around edges of wax plates and areas free of epicuticular wax (ECW), that disappeared after hot water dips at 53–59 °C for 60–15 s, become visible again after storage for 21 days at 1 °C (quarantine conditions), and changes involving the appearance of rough ultrastructure, presence large curled plates, fissured wax crusts, and areas with ECW deficiencies, became much more pronounced after shelf-life. These occurrences were related to the transient effect of hot water treatment in decay control. Conversely, treatments with 300 mg/L TBZ 53 °C for 60 s or 56 °C for 30 s effectively reduced decay after quarantine. These treatments were as effective as standard treatment with 1000 mg/L TBZ at 20 °C and produced similar TBZ residue levels in fruit, without impairing fruit quality traits such as visual appearance, weight loss, compression test, sensory attributes, juice color parameters (a*, b*, h, L*, and Chroma), and juice chemical characteristics (soluble solids content, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, total phenols, total anthocyanins, and total antioxidant activity).
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