Mueller, Andreas M. and Entezari, Vahid and Rosso, Claudio and McKenzie, Brett and Hasebrock, Andrew and Cereatti, Andrea and Della Croce, Ugo and De Angelis, Joseph P. and Nazarian, Ara and Ramappa, Arun J. (2013) The Effect of simulated scapular winging on glenohumeral joint translations. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, Vol. 22 (7), p. 986-992. eISSN 1532-6500. Article.
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Hypothesis: In this study, we aim to test whether scapular winging results in a significant change in glenohumeral translation in the initial phase of the throwing motion.
Methods: Six shoulders underwent an abbreviated throwing motion (ATM) from late cocking to the end of
acceleration by use of a validated robotic system. The intact specimens were tested to establish a baseline.
The position of the scapula was then affected to simulate scapular winging by placing a cylindrical wedge
under the inferior angle of the scapula, and the ATM was performed again. For both conditions, the average
glenohumeral translations and scapular rotations were plotted over time to calculate the area under the
curve, as a representative of the overall glenohumeral translations and scapular rotations observed during
Results: Throughout the motion, the winged scapulae showed, on average, 7.7° more upward rotation,
1.6° more internal rotation, and 5.3° more anterior tipping as compared with the baseline. The scapular position relative to the hanging arm was significantly different between the baseline and scapular winging
conditions in all arm positions, except for maximal external rotation and the neutral position. Comparing
the area under the curve at baseline and with scapular winging indicated that scapular winging significantly
increased anterior translation of the glenohumeral joint whereas translation in the superior/inferior and
medial/lateral directions did not result in a change in translation.
Discussion: These results may suggest a more important role of abnormalities in scapular position in
predisposing throwing athletes to shoulder injuries of the anterior capsulolabral structures and consecutive
Level of evidence: Basic Science Study, Biomechanics.
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