Orgiazzi, Alberto and Bianciotto, Valeria and Bonfante, Paola and Daghino, Stefania and Ghignone, Stefano and Lazzari, Alexandra and Lumini, Erica and Mello, Antonietta and Napoli, Chiara and Perotto, Silvia and Vizzini, Alfredo and Bagella, Simonetta and Murat, Claude and Girlanda, Mariangela (2013) Pyrosequencing analysis of fungal assemblages from geographically distant, disparate soils reveals spatial patterning and a core mycobiome. Diversity, Vol. 5 (1), p. 73-98. eISSN 1424-2818. Article.
Identifying a soil core microbiome is crucial to appreciate the established microbial consortium, which is not usually subjected to change and, hence, possibly resistant/resilient to disturbances and a varying soil context. Fungi are a major part of soil biodiversity, yet the mechanisms driving their large-scale ecological ranges and distribution are poorly understood. The degree of fungal community overlap among 16 soil samples from distinct ecosystems and distant geographic localities (truffle grounds, a Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral system, serpentine substrates and a contaminated industrial area) was assessed by examining the distribution of fungal ITS1 and ITS2 sequences in a dataset of 454 libraries. ITS1 and ITS2 sequences were assigned to 1,660 and 1,393 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs; as defined by 97% sequence similarity), respectively. Fungal beta-diversity was found to be spatially autocorrelated. At the level of individual OTUs, eight ITS1 and seven ITS2 OTUs were found in all soil sample groups. These ubiquitous taxa comprised generalist fungi with oligotrophic and chitinolytic abilities, suggesting that a stable core of fungi across the complex soil fungal assemblages is either endowed with the capacity of sustained development in the nutrient-poor soil conditions or with the ability to exploit organic resources (such as chitin) universally distributed in soils.
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