Leoni, Giovanni Giuseppe and Bogliolo, Luisa and Deiana, Gianni and Berlinguer, Fiammetta and Rosati, Irma and Pintus, Pier Paolo and Ledda, Sergio and Naitana, Salvatore (2002) Influence of cadmium exposure on in vitro ovine gamete dysfunction. Reproductive toxicology, Vol. 16 (4), p. 371-377. eISSN 1873-1708. Article.
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This study was conducted to determine the in vitro effects of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 2, and 20 µM CdCl2) on oocyte maturation, fertilisation, and acrosome integrity and sperm viability in sheep. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were recovered from ovaries of slaughtered sheep and sperm were collected by artificial vagina from adult rams. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly affected (P <0.001) by Cd at both concentrations, with a metaphase II (MII) rate of 96.8, 63.8, and 32.0% for 0, 2, and 20 µM cadmium, respectively. In the second experiment, the presence of Cd significantly decreased (P <0.01) the rate of oocytes resting in MII after 24-h postmaturation culture, compared with the control group (93.8 versus 29.0 and 19.8%, respectively, for 0, 2, and 20 µM Cd). Oocytes cultured with Cd 2 µM showed a higher activation rate (59.5%,P <0.001) with one or two pronucleus than with 0 and 20 µMCd (6.2 and 22.9%, respectively). During fertilisation the presence of fertilised oocytes was decreased in both culture systems with Cd compared with the control (76.1, 25.9, and 4.7% for 0, 2, and 20 µMCd, respectively;P <0.001) while polyspermy was increased in the 2 µMCd group (23.5 for 2 µM versus 6.7 and 0%, respectively, for 0 and 20 µM groups). In both experiments Cd significantly increased (P < 0.001) the rates of oocyte degeneration. In the third experiment, Cd 20 µM significantly decreased (P < 0.01) the viability rate (35.6%) of spermatozoa compared with 2 µM (57.6%) and 0 µM (54.4%) while Cd 2 µM increased (P < 0.01) acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (45.2%) compared with 20 µM (32.5%) and control (31.9%). The results suggest that in vitro cadmium at the lowest dose tested affects the physiological function of both ovine gametes but at higher dose tested can compromise cell viability.
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