Scanu, Bruno and Linaldeddu, Benedetto Teodoro and Franceschini, Antonio (2010) First report of Phytophthora pseudosyringae associated with ink disease of Castanea sativa in Italy. Plant Disease, Vol. 94 (8), p. 1068. ISSN 0191-2917. Article.
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Since December 2008, a severe outbreak of ink disease has been observed in a chestnut grove in the Sardinia Region in Italy (40°01′N, 9°13′E, 1,200 m above sea level). Trees have shown symptoms such as microphylly and yellowish foliage as well as necrosis on the main roots and collar. Isolations were made from infected roots and soil using green apples as baits. Small pulp pieces were cut from the lesions that developed in the apples and plated on Phytophthora selective medium. In addition to Phytophthora cambivora, another Phytophthora sp. was detected from 60% of 25 symptomatic trees sampled. Colonies subcultured onto carrot agar (CA) were generally appressed and stellate. Growth occurred from 2 to 26°C with an optimum at 20°C (mean radial growth rate of 4.5 mm/day). Sporangia were produced abundantly in unsterile pond water; they were semipapillate, rarely bipapillate, limoniform or ovoid, occasionally caducous with short pedicels (<5 μm), and 35.2 to 58.1 (46.3) × 22.1 to 35.3 (31.9) μm, with a length/breadth ratio of 1.5:1. Catenulate hyphal swellings were frequently present, whereas no chlamydospores were observed. Isolates produced numerous homothallic oogonia with diameters from 23.7 to 31.7 (27.3) μm. Antheridia were predominantly paragynous. Cultural and morphological features were in close agreement with those described for P. pseudosyringae.
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