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Does smoking increase risk for caries? A cross-sectional study in an Italian Military Academy

Campus, Guglielmo Giuseppe and Cagetti, Maria Grazia and Senna, Andrea and Blasi, G. and Mascolo, A. and Demarchi, P. and Strohmenger, Laura (2011) Does smoking increase risk for caries? A cross-sectional study in an Italian Military Academy. Caries Research, Vol. 45 (1), p. 40-46. eISSN 1421-976X. Article.

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DOI: 10.1159/000322852

Abstract

Background/Aims: Traditionally, tobacco is considered as part of the military culture. A cross-sectional survey was designed to clarify if smoking habit increases the caries risk in a sample of Italian adults attending a Military Academy. Methods: Clinical examinations including dental caries and presence of bleeding at probing were carried out following WHO criteria. Related socio-behavioural factors were collected. Four calibrated examiners observed 763 subjects (men = 722; 94.6% and women = 41; 5.4%). Results: One of the 763 subjects did not declare the smoking status and was excluded from the analysis. Hundred twenty-six (16.5%) subjects claimed to have never smoked, 200 (26.3%) were coded as light smokers and 436 (57.2%) as heavy tobacco users. Statistically significant linear trend across the educational level (p = 0.03), self-satisfaction with the appearance of teeth and gums (p = 0.04) and dental check-up in the past 6 months (p = 0.02) was found among the 3 subgroups. Almost the entire sample showed caries experience (84.1%). Mean DS ranged from 0.6 in the nonsmokers subgroup to 1.1 in the heavy smokers. Differences among means were statistically significant for DS, DMFS and Significant Caries Index (p = 0.01, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The zero-inflated regression model showed that caries severity was significantly associated with smoking habit (p = 0.02), dental check-up in the past 6 months (p = 0.01), self-satisfaction with the appearance of teeth and gums (p < 0.01) and healthy gums (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Heavy smokers attending a Military Academy showed a higher prevalence of caries, confirming a correlation between the disease and tobacco use.

Item Type:Article
ID Code:7494
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords:Adults, caries experience, DMFS, epidemiology, smoking habits
Subjects:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/28 Malattie odontostomatologiche
Divisions:001 Università di Sassari > 03 Istituti > Clinica odontoiatrica
001 Università di Sassari > 01 Dipartimenti > Chirurgia, microchirurgia e specialità medico-chirurgiche
Publisher:Karger
eISSN:1421-976X
Deposited On:04 May 2012 08:56

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