Schirra, Mario and D'Aquino, Salvatore and Palma, Amedeo and Angioni, Alberto and Cabras, Paolo and Migheli, Quirico (2006) Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit. Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 69 (7), p. 1646-1652. ISSN 0362-028X. Article.
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The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatments with 200 to 600 mg/liter active ingredient TFX at 20°C were less effective than 100 mg/liter TFX at 50°C for controlling P. digitatum but equally effective for controlling P. italicum. IMZ treatments with 200 mg/liter IMZ at 20°C or 25 mg/liter IMZ at 50°C resulted in more than 98% reduction of P. digitatum and ca. 93% reduction of P. italicum compared with untreated fruit. Total suppression of pathogens was achieved when higher IMZ doses were applied. Studies on artificially wounded lemons, oranges, clementines, and mandarins revealed that treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 50°C effectively controlled decay development (mainly due to P. digitatum) after 7 days of storage at 20°C. These results were confirmed on nonwounded oranges of cv. Tarocco and on grapefruits of cvs. Marsh Seedless and Star Ruby during 3 weeks of simulated quarantine at 1°C, storage (5 weeks at 8°C for oranges and 8 weeks at 11°C for grapefruits), and an additional 1 week of simulated marketing conditions at 20°C. IMZ at 50°C was highly effective for controlling decay during storage and the simulated marketing period. TFX treatment at 50°C was as effective as IMZ for controlling decay in most samples. After treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 20°C, fungicide residues in 'Tarocco' oranges doubled from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg when dip time increased from 0.5 to 3 min, whereas when treatments were performed at 50°C TFX residues were not related to dipping time. Residues of TFX were significantly correlated with dip temperature. A 3-min dip treatment at 50°C resulted in a deposition of TFX that was approximately twofold higher than that obtained when treatments were carried out at 20°C.
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