Lucchetti, Luigi and Cappozzo, Aurelio and Cappello, Angelo and Della Croce, Ugo (1998) Skin movement artefact assessment and compensation in the estimation of knee-joint kinematics. Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 31 (11), p. 977-984. ISSN 0021-9290. Article.
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In three dimensional (3-D) human movement analysis using close-range photogrammetry, surface marker clusters deform and rigidly move relative to the underlying bone. This introduces an important artefact (skin movement artefact) which propagates to bone position and orientation and joint kinematics estimates. This occurs to the extent that those joint attitude components that undergo small variations result in totally unreliable values. This paper presents an experimental and analytical procedure, to be included in a subject-speciÞc movement analysis protocol, which allows for the assessment of skin movement artefacts and, based on this knowledge, for their compensation. The e¤ectiveness of this procedure was veriÞed with reference to knee-joint kinematics and to the artefacts caused by the hip movements on markers located on the thigh surface. Quantitative validation was achieved through experimental paradigms whereby prior reliable information on the target joint kinematics was available. When position and orientation of bones were determined during the execution of a motor task, using a least-squares optimal estimator, but the rigid artefactual marker cluster movement was not dealt with, then knee joint translations and rotations were a¤ected by root mean square errors (r.m.s.) up to 14 mmand 6°, respectively. When the rigid artefactual movement was also compensated for, then r.m.s errors were reduced to less than 4 mm and 3°, respectively. In addition, errors originally strongly correlated with hip rotations, after compensation, lost this correlation.
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