Chiari, Lorenzo and Della Croce, Ugo and Leardini, Alberto and Cappozzo, Aurelio (2005) Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry: part 2: instrumental errors. Gait & Posture, Vol. 21 (2), p. 197-211. eISSN 1879-2219. Article.
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This paper reviews the main aspects involved with the management of instrumental errors associated with video-based optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry. Insights on how such errors propagate to kinematic quantities are of great interest in the field of human movement analysis to improve the precision and reliability of measurements. The review focuses on the technical assessment and analytical compensation procedures to cope with instrumental errors. Relevant contributions dealing with intrinsic sources of systematic and random errors, such as the issues concerning camera calibration and filtering and smoothing of marker position data, are presented. Procedures for marker imaged processing, and missing marker recovery are also surveyed. Methods for checking the accuracy and precision of stereophotogrammetric systems are then reviewed. Finally, since the desired outcome of the movement measurements is a reliable estimate of body segment kinematics, state-of-the-art techniques proposed for minimization of error propagation arising from a cluster of external markers are described.
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