D'Aquino, Salvatore and Schirra, Mario and Palma, Amedeo and Angioni, Alberto and Cabras, Paolo and Migheli, Quirico (2006) Residue levels and effectiveness of pyrimethanil vs imazalil when using heated postharvest dip treatments for control of Penicillium decay on citrus fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54 (13), p. 4721-4726. eISSN 1520-5118. Article.
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The influence of fungicide concentration and treatment temperature on residue levels of pyrimethanil (PYR) in comparison with the commonly used fungicide imazalil (IMZ) was investigated in orange fruits following postharvest dip treatments. The dissipation rate of PYR residues was recorded as a function of storage conditions. The fungicide efficacy against green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, was evaluated on different citrus varieties following the fungicide application at 20 or 50 °C. Residue levels of PYR in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with the fungicide dosage, but residue concentrations were notably higher (ca. 13-19-fold) after treatment at 50 °C as compared to treatments at 20 °C. After treatment at temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 °C, PYR and IMZ residues in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with dip temperatures. Dissipation rates of PYR during storage were negligible in both Salustiana and Tarocco oranges. Results obtained on wounded, noninoculated Miho satsumas revealed that when treatments were performed at 50 °C, PYR or IMZ concentrations needed to achieve the complete control of decay were 8- and 16-fold less than by treatment at 20 °C. When fruits were inoculated with either P. digitatum or P. italicum, the application of 400 mg L-1 PYR at 20 °C or 100 mg L-1 PYR at 50 °C similarly reduced green and blue mold development. These results were corroborated by storage trials on Marsh grapefruits and Tarocco oranges. The lowest concentration of PYR required to achieve almost total protection of the fruit against decay accounted for 100 mg L-1 at 50 °C and 400 mg L-1 at 20 °C, respectively. Treatments did not affect fruit external appearance, flavor, and taste. It is concluded that postharvest PYR treatment represents an effective option to control green and blue mold in citrus fruit and that integration of fungicide applications and hot water dips may reduce the possibility of selecting fungicide-resistant populations of the pathogen, as a consequence of increased effectiveness of the treatment.
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