Manca, Paolo and Chisu, Valentina (2011) Testosterone attenuates morpho-fiunctional alterations by 2-methoxyestradiol exposure and induces differentiation in C6 cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, Vol. 226 (6), p. 1510-1518. eISSN 1097-4652. Article.
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2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME) is a cytotoxic drug that interacts with tubulin and alters microtubule dynamics. It has been reported that testosterone (T) has a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress and induces differentiation in mouse C1300 neuroblastoma cells. Here, we investigated the ability of T to attenuate the cytotoxic effects of 2ME and to induce cell differentiation in an immortalized rat glial cell line, known as C6. C6 cells were exposed for 5 days to 5 µM 2ME, 50 nM T, or both. We evaluated the morphological changes, growth rate, vitality, catalase activity, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in control and treated C6 cells. Western Blot analyses were used to quantify expression of tyrosinated tubulin (Tyr-Tub), acetylated tubulin (Acet-Tub), total α-tubulin (TOT-Tub), and GFAP. After 2ME exposure, the cells displayed a globular, shrunken shape and retraction or absence of cytoplasmic processes; moreover, 2ME treatment significantly decreased cell growth, cell viability, catalase activity, and expression of both Tyr-Tub and Acet-Tub. However, when T was added, the cells exhibited a glial-like shape, elongated cell processes, and enhanced cell growth, cell vitality, catalase activity, and GFAP immunoreactivity. Densitometric values of Tyr-Tub, Acet-Tub, and GFAP increased significantly when T was present, while Tot-Tub values were unaltered. These results indicate that, in C6 cells, T: i) attenuated the morpho-functional changes caused by 2ME exposure; ii) induced glial differentiation; iii) exerted a direct action on the microtubule system.
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