Nosadini, Romano and Tonolo, Giancarlo (2011) Role of oxidized low density lipoproteins and free fatty acids in the pathogenesis of glomerulopathy and tubulointerstitial lesions in type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 21 (2), p. 79-85. eISSN 1590-3729. Article.
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Oxidized lipids initiate and modulate the inflammatory cellular events in the arterial wall and the formation of macrophage foam cells. CD36 mediates the cellular uptake of ox-LDL through its recognition of specific truncated fatty acid moieties and oxidized phosphatidylcholine. Evidence has been reported that chemokine CXCL16, rather than CD36, is the main scavenger receptor in human podocytes mediating the uptake of ox-LDL. Ox-LDL induces loss of nephrin expression from cultured podocytes. It has been recently shown that nephrin once phosphorilated associates with PI3K and stimulates the Akt dependent signaling. This pathway plays a critical role in nephrin-actin-dependent cytoskeleton activation and remodeling, in the control of protein trafficking and in podocyte survival. An enhanced FFA uptake by podocytes is mediated by increased C36 scavenger receptor expression, together with a decrease of betaoxidation and in turn intracellular lipid accumulation. Accumulated FFA that is trapped into the mitochondrial matrix leads to mitochondrial ROS production, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. A disturbed transport and oxidation of FFA, paralleled by an impaired antioxidant response, damages podocyte structure and leads to glomerulopathy in early stages of nephrosis. Increased triglyceride synthesis and ox-and glycated LDL uptake by mesangial cells may also contribute to determine diabetic glomerulopathy. Oxidative processes are pivotal events in injury to renal tubular and epithelial cells exposed to ox-LDL. Notably CXCL16 are the main receptors for the uptake of ox-LDL in podocytes, whereas CD36 plays this role in tubular renal cells. In overt type 2 diabetes Ox-LDL and FFA damage podocyte function, SD-podocyte structure and tubulointerstitial tissue, at least partially, through different pathogenetic mechanisms.
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