Pascucci, Vincenzo and Costantini, Armando and Martini, Ireneo Peter and Dringoli, Riccardo (2006) Tectono-sedimentary analysis of a complex, extensional, Neogene basin formed on thrust-faulted, northern Apennines hinterland: Radicofani basin, Italy. Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 183 (1-2), p. 71-97. ISSN 0037-0738. Article.
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Large NW–SE oriented, Neogene–Quaternary structural depressions, up to about 200 km long and 25 km wide, have developed on the western side (hinterland) of the Northern Apennines over thrust substrate. The depressions are now, for the most part, laterally bounded by normal faults and are longitudinally separated into basins by transfer zones. A debate exists in the literature as to whether these basins have developed as half-graben under a predominantly extensional regime since late Miocene, or as thrust-top basins under a predominantly compressional regime that has continued until the Pleistocene. The Radicofani Basin is one of the best-preserved basins. It developed mainly during the late Miocene–Early Pliocene in the southern half of the Siena–Radicofani structural depression, and is now bounded on the east by normal faults that transect a thrust anticline “nose“ in the substrate, to the north by a substrate high or transfer zone, and to the south and west by Quaternary igneous/volcanic edifices. The basin experienced variable differential tectonic and associated sedimentation along linking, normal boundary faults. Along its eastern margin it shows the development of thick ( ~600 m) alluvial fans that developed in relay areas between boundary faults and transverse faults and transfer zones. Well-exposed sections generally show upward transitions from conglomeratic alluvial fans, to shoreface sandstone, to offshore mudstones. Locally, the transition is marked by deltas primarily characterised by thick gravelly, sandy, stacked cross-sets The thicker, sandy-gravel to gravelly-sand cross-sets (5–8 m thick) are interpreted as Gilbert-type deltas; interstratified thinner (0.5–1 m thick), generally openwork gravelly strata are part of delta topset assemblages and probably represent prograding fluvial bars. Tectonic movements provided the accommodation space for the total, ~2700 m thick basin fill. Sea level fluctuations that led to the repeated development of the cross-sets may also have been influenced by climatic or eustatic changes, possibly related to the effects of early Antarctic glaciations.
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