Manca, Gavina and Franco, Mario Andrea and Versini, Giuseppe and Camin, Federica and Rossman, Andreas and Tola, Alessio (2006) Correlation between multielement stable isotope ratio and geographical origin in Peretta cows' milk cheese. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 89 (3), p. 831-839. eISSN 1525-3198. Article.
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The aim of this study was to characterize the isotopic composition and protect “Peretta” cows’ milk cheese, a typical product of Sardinia, against other cheeses of the same appearance sold under the same name, but made of raw materials from northern Europe. The study was concerned with 3 types of cheese: those produced in local dairies from milk from free-grazing or pasture-grazing cows in Sardinia (local dairy product), cheeses made on an industrial scale from milk produced by intensive farming in Sardinia (factory cheese), and cheeses made with raw materials imported from other countries (imported product). To distinguish the Sardinian cheeses from the imported product, the stable isotope ratios 13C/12C, 15N/14N, D/H, 34S/32S, and 18O/16O were used. Determination of the isotopic data δ13C, δ15N, δ2H, and δ34S was performed in the casein fraction, whereas δ18O and δ13C were determined in the glycerol fraction. Measurements were performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A comparison between mean values of the isotope ratios by statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test) showed that the greatest difference between the 3 types of cheese (local dairy, factory, and imported products) was in the 13C/12C, 34S/32S, and 18O/16O isotope ratios. In the other parameters, either no differences (δ15N) or minimal differences (δ2H) were found. Evaluation of the data by multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis) revealed that the isotope characteristics of the factory products were similar to those of the cheeses produced from imported raw materials, whereas a difference was found between the local dairy-produced cheeses and the products in the other 2 categories.
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