Caria, Maria and Murgia, Lelia and Pazzona, Antonio Luigi (2008) Effect of low vacuum on sheep milking. In: Innovation technology to empower safety, health and welfare in agriculture and agro-food systems: International conference, September 15-17, 2008, Ragusa, Italy. Ragusa, ElleDue.  p. ISBN 978-88-903151-1-4. Conference or Workshop Item.
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The level of the vacuum in machine milking is one of the principal parameters which influence
the integrity of the tissues and the milk quality. Many studies have shown that while raising the
level of the vacuum increases the speed of milk emission, it can also generate congestion in the
teat, formation of oedema, increase in residual milk and in the number of somatic cells. Thus
milking should be performed with the lowest possible level of vacuum which is compatible with
not excessively prolonging milking time. In Italy the vacuum level is unjustifiably high - on
average 42 - 46 kPa- while in other European countries the usually level is 4-5 kPa lower.
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