Peana, Alessandra Tiziana and De Montis, Maria Graziella and Sechi, Silvia and Sircana, Gabriella and D'Aquila, Paolo Stefano and Pippia, Proto Gavino (2004) Effects of (−)-linalool in the acute hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, L-glutamate and prostaglandin E2. European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 497 (3), p. 279-284. ISSN 0014-2999. Article.
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A series of studies performed in our laboratory have shown that (−)-linalool, the natural occurring enantiomer in essential oils, possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in different animal models. The antinociceptive effect of (−)-linalool has been ascribed to the stimulation of the cholinergic, opioidergic and dopaminergic systems, to its local anesthetic activity and to the blockade of N-Methyl-D -aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In this study, we investigated the effect of systemic administration of (−)-linalool in the paw withdrawal test in rats, a model of thermal hyperalgesia induced by monolateral subplantar injection of carrageenan, -glutamate or prostaglandin E2. Carrageenan and L-glutamate induced a hyperalgesic effect on the injection side. In contrast, prostaglandin E2 induced hyperalgesia in both the injection side and the contralateral side. Pretreatment with (−)-linalool (50–150 mg/kg) inhibited the development of acute hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan in the injected paw, with no effect on the contralateral paw. Furthermore, (−)-linalool at the highest dose used (200 mg/kg), reduced and reverted the decrease in paw withdrawal latencies induced by L-glutamate on the ipsilateral side, showing antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects. An antinociceptive effect was apparent also in the contralateral paw. Finally, (−)-linalool (200 mg/kg) increased paw withdrawal latency on the side contralateral to prostaglandin E2 injection, but not on the side of the injection. The efficacy of (−)-linalool in decreasing the hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, L-glutamate and prostaglandin E2 suggests that this compound might be useful in pain conditions sustained by the development of neuronal sensitization.
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