Mazzanti, Gabriela and Daniele, Claudia and Boatto, Gianpiero and Manca, Giuliana and Brambilla, Gianfranco and Loizzo, Alberto (2003) New β-adrenergic agonists used illicitly as growth promoters in animal breeding: chemical and pharmacodynamic studies. Toxicology, Vol. 187 (2-3), p. 91-99. eISSN 1879-3185. Article.
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Clenbuterol and β-adrenergic receptor agonist drugs are illegally used as growth promoters in animal production. Pharmacologically active residues in edible tissues led to intoxication outbreaks in several countries. Pressure of official controls pulsed synthesis of new compounds to escape analytical procedures. We report two new compounds named ‘A’ and ‘G4’, found in feeding stuffs. Chemical structure was studied through nuclear magnetic resonance-imaging and infrared spectroscopy, and β1- and β2-adrenergic activity was evaluated on isolated guinea-pig atrium and trachea in comparison with clenbuterol. Both compounds share with clenbuterol an halogenated aromatic ring with a primary amino group. Main modifications consisted of substitution of secondary amino group with an alkyl chain in compound A and substitution of the ter-butyl group with a benzene ring in compound G4. In guinea-pig trachea these compounds showed myorelaxant potency lower than clenbuterol (EC50 was 43.8 nM for clenbuterol, 11 700 nM for compound A, 2140 nM for G4). On the contrary, in the guinea-pig atrium (heart-beat rate stimulant effect) the compounds were more potent than clenbuterol (EC50 was 15.2 nM for clenbuterol, 3.4 nM for compound A, 2.8 nM for G4). These pharmacodynamic properties, and stronger lipophilic properties shown by the two compounds may result in increased cardiovascular risk for consumers of illicitly treated animals.
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