Giunta, Francesco and Motzo, Rosella and Virdis, Adriana (2001) Development of durum wheat and triticale cultivars as affected by thermo-photoperiodic conditions. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 52 (3), p. 387-396. ISSN 0004-9409. Article.
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The understanding of the interaction between thermo-photoperiodic conditions and the genetic control of anthesis date is fundamental in explaining the environmental adaptation of durum wheat and triticale cultivars. The development of 8 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var.durum) and 2 triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) cultivars was studied at 3 sowing dates (September, November, and March) by observations on apex development, number and rate of leaf appearance, spike fertility, and number and length of elongated internodes. Variation in anthesis date was mostly explained by the total number of leaves, which ranged between 8.3 and 15, and hence by the duration of the phase of leaf primordium production. Total leaf number also affected the length of the subsequent phase until flag leaf appearance. The phyllochron was influenced by both sowing date and genotype, and was minimum in the March sowing (87 degree-days). The genotypic variability in phyllochron was due either to the variations in leaf number or to genotypic intrinsic differences. Time to terminal spikelet stage was related to the number of spikelets per spike and to the number of elongated internodes, although stem length depended more on internode length than on internode number. The number of spikelets per spike was associated with leaf number, but their relationship was affected by the thermal conditions during spikelet primordium initiation. No differences were observed between wheat and triticale cultivars, apart from the number of spikelets per spike.
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