Vacca, Vincenzo and Agabbio, Mario Carlo Salvatore and Fenu, Paolo Antonio Maria (1997) La Caffeina nei fiori del genere citrus: relazioni con la presenza dell'alcaloide riscontrata nei mieli di agrumi. Industrie alimentari, Vol. 36 (359), p. 611-613. ISSN 0019-901X. Article.
Twenty-five samples of different species of citrus flowers (orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, mandarin, mandarin-like and two hybrids) were tested for caffeine content. Althoug caffeine was found in all samples, the high variability in content within the samples did not allow a precise distinction to be made between the species. Caffeine concentration ranged from 4.61 mg/kg dry mattter in a grapefruit sample (cv. "Star Ruby") to 30.92 mg/kg in a tangerine sample (cv. "Clementine di Nules"). The presence of the alkaloid confirms that caffeine found in orange and citrus honeys probably comes form flowers and is transferred to the honey by bees. However, the reults of this study do not permit the origin of orange and citrus honeys to be determined from their caffeine content.
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