Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo and Carcangiu, Vincenzo and Dettori, Maria Luisa and Pazzola, Michele and Mauriello, Rosalba and Chianese, Lina (2008) Polimorfismo della caseina αs1 e qualità del latte della capra sarda. Scienza e tecnica lattiero-casearia, Vol. 59 (1), p. 23-37. ISSN 0390-6361. Article.
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The research was carried out in order to evaluate αs1-casein allele frequency and the possible correlations between its genotype and milk quanti-qualitative productions in Sarda goat. 600 Sarda goats were utilized, belonging from 24 flocks located in three distinct areas of Sardinia: Central (Zone 1), South-East Coast (Zone 2) and South-West area (Zone 3). The individual milk samples were collected during the middle stage of lactation and analysed for fat, protein and lactose percentage, pH value, cryoscopic index, SCC and TMC. The phenotype analysis of the αs1-casein was carried out by ultra thin layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing (UTLIEF) and immunoblotting with specific polyclonal antibodies against αs1-casein. The statistical analysis pointed out significant differences between milk yield, milk quality and genotype frequencies related to the breeding zone. The following genotype frequencies were detected: BB (63.3%), AB (20.0%), AA (9.0%), EF (3.2%), BF (2.2%), FF (0.7%), IF (0.7%), AE (0.3%), EE (0.3%) and EI (0.3%). Statistical analysis, performed by ANOVA, showed interesting differences between the strong genotypes: the significantly higher (P<0.01) milk yield was among the subjects with AB genotypes (>1 kg/day). The AB and BB genotypes displayed higher (P<0.01) fat (5.51% and 5.47% vs. 5.17%), higher protein values (4.56% and 4.45% vs. 4.20%) than the AA genotype. The lower lactose content (P<0.01) was registered in the BB genotype (4.93%). The subjects carrying the strong alleles at the homozygous state showed higher (P<0.01) dry matter percentages and lower pH values (P<0.05) than the other genotypes. No differences in milk production or chemical composition arose after the other genotypes comparison. The results of the present research show that milk from Sarda goat is particularly suitable for cheese making. It is possible to apply selection strategies within this population, directed to the improvement of productions not neglecting milk quality aspects.
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