Rau, Domenico and Attene, Giovanna and Brown, Anthony H. D. and Nanni, Laura and Maier, Frank J. and Balmas, Virgilio and Saba, Eva and Schäfer, Wilhelm (2007) Phylogeny and evolution of mating-type genes from Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of barley “net blotch”. Current Genetics, Vol. 51 (6), p. 377-392. eISSN 1432-0983. Article.
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The main aim of this study was to test the patterns of sequence divergence and haplotype structure at the MAT locus of Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of barley ‘net blotch’ disease. P. teres is a heterothallic ascomycete that co-occurs in two symptomatological forms, the net form (NF) and the spot form (SF). The mating-type genes MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 were sequenced from 22 NF isolates (12 MAT1-1-1 and 10 MAT1-2-1 sequences) and 17 SF isolates (10 MAT1-1-1 and seven MAT1-2-1 sequences) collected from Sardinian barley landrace populations and worldwide. On the basis of a parsimony network analysis, the two forms of P. teres are phylogenetically separated. More than 85% of the total nucleotide variation was found between formae speciales. The two forms do not share any polymorphisms. Six diagnostic nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the MAT1-1-1 intron (1) and in the MAT1-1-1 (3) and MAT1-2-1 (2) exons. Three diagnostic non-synonymous mutations were found, one in MAT1-1-1 and two in MAT1-2-1. For comparison with P. teres sequence data, the mating-type genes from Pyrenophora graminea were also isolated and sequenced. Divergence between P. graminea and P. teres is of a similar magnitude to that between NF and SF of P. teres. The MAT genes of P. graminea were closer to those of SF than to NF, with the MAT1-2-1 SF peptide not different from the MAT1-2-1 peptide of P. graminea. Overall, these data suggest long genetic isolation between the two forms of P. teres and that hybridization is rare or absent under field conditions, with each form having some particular niche specialization. This indicates that research on resistance to P. teres should consider the two forms separately, as different species.
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