Domizio, Paola and Lencioni, Livio and Romani, Cristina and Ciani, Maurizio and Comitini, Francesca and Landolfo, Sara and Mannazzu, Ilaria Maria (2009) Improvement of wine quality by using non-Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Annals of Microbiology, Vol. 59 (Special Issue), p. 55. ISSN 1590-4261. Article.
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Spontaneous grape must fermentations are consistently characterized by a sequential colonization of the
substrate according to which apiculate yeasts (Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera), that predominate at the
beginning of the process, are quickly replaced by Saccharomyces yeasts. In addition, other yeasts such as those belonging to the genera Candida, Torulaspora, Kluyveromyces, Zygosaccharomyces and
Metschnikowia, may be present during must fermentation (Fleet, 2003). These “wild” yeasts have been considered for a long time responsible for wine defects. Thus, to inhibit their development and ensure the production of wines with repeatable characteristics, grape must is commonly treated with SO2 and inoculated with selected cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, quantitative studies on the composition of the microflora of fermenting musts indicate that wild non-Saccharomyces yeasts may persist during inoculated fermentations (Mora et al., 1990) and produce high amounts of different metabolites and enzymes able to carry out the transformation of the aroma precursors present in grapes (Fernandez et al., 2000). Thus, non-Saccharomyces yeasts may influence the perceivable characteristics of the final product (Romano et al., 2003).
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