Carta, Arturo and Mora, Paolo and Pinna, Antonio <1963- > and Sadun, Alfredo A. (2008) State of the art on traumatic optic neuropathy. Expert Review of Ophthalmology, Vol. 3 (1), p. 77-84. ISSN 1746-9899. Article.
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Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an uncommon cause of permanent visual loss. Optic nerve trauma may be direct or indirect (the latter being the more common as a cause of TON). The intracanalicular portion of the optic nerve is the most frequent site of injury in cases of indirect TON, probably related to a mechanism of shear, ischemia, axonal swelling, reperfusion and reactive oxygen species formation with lipidperoxidation. In this review we summarize the clinical signs and symptoms that must be evaluated for a correct diagnosis, supported by instrumental investigations such as neuroradiological imaging. In the last part of the work we report the visual prognosis and the treatment options available to date for TON.
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