Grosso, Enrico and Metta, Giorgio and Oddera, Andrea and Sandini, Giulio (1996) Robust visual servoing in 3d reaching tasks. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 12 (5), p. 732-742. ISSN 1042-296X. Article.
This paper describes a novel approach to the problem of reaching an object in space under visual guidance. The approach is characterized by a great robustness to calibration errors, such that virtually no calibration is required. Servoing is based on binocular vision: a continuous measure of the end-effector motion field, derived from real-time computation of the binocular optical flow over the stereo images, is compared with the actual position of the target and the relative error in the end-effector trajectory is continuously corrected. The paper outlines the general framework of the approach, shows how visual measures are obtained and discusses the synthesis of the controller along with its stability analysis. Real-time experiments are presented to show the applicability of the approach in real 3-D applications.
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