De Muro, Pierina and Capobianco, Giampiero and Formato, Marilena and Lepedda, Antonio Junior and Cherchi, Gian Mario and Gordini, Laila and Dessole, Salvatore (2009) Glycosaminoglycan and transforming growth factor β1 changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, in vitro fertilization treatment, and pregnancy. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 92 (1), p. 320-327. ISSN 0015-0282. Article.
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Objective. To evaluate transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, IVF-ET, and pregnancy.
Design. Prospective clinical study.
Setting. University hospital.
Patient(s). Thirteen women with apparently normal menstrual cycle (group 1); 18 women undergoing IVF-ET (group 2); and 14 low-risk pregnant women (group 3).
Intervention(s). We assayed plasma and urine concentrations of TGF-β1, urine content, and distribution of GAG. Blood and urine samples were collected during days 2 to 3, 12 to 13, and 23 to 24 in group 1; in group 2, samples were obtained at menstrual phase, oocyte pick-up day, and 15 days after ET; in group 3, samples were obtained during gestational weeks 10–12, 22–24, and 30–32 and 1 month after delivery.
Main Outcome Measure(s). Changes in TGF-β1 and GAG content.
Result(s). The mean value of total urinary trypsin inhibitor/chondroitin sulfate (UTI/CS) showed a distinct peak at day 12 of the menstrual cycle in the fertile women in whom we monitored the ovulatory period. In the IVF-ET group, GAG distribution and TGF-β1 levels showed significant differences during the cycle. We observed increased levels of plasma TGF-β1 15 days after ET. A significant increase of total UTI/CS value with increasing gestation was detected.
Conclusion(s). Transforming growth factor β1 and GAG levels could represent an additional tool to monitor reproductive events and could be useful, noninvasive markers of ovulation and ongoing pregnancy.
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