Varcasia, Antonio (2008) L'Echinococcosi cistica in Sardegna. Doctoral Thesis.
Between March 2006 and April 2007 in order to assess the prevalence of E. granulosus in livestock animals of Sardinia, liver and lungs from 770 sheep, 229 cattle, 95 horses, 46 donkeys and 2,672 pigs (2,330 from intensive farming and 342 from home slaughtering) were examined. Another survey was carried out on 461wild boars caught during hunting seasons 2005-2007 in north and central Sardinia. Viscera were examined to determine number, location and type of hydatids, which were then classified as fertile and sterile. DNA from 100 samples of cystic material (sheep 39, cattle 14, horses 8, pigs 39, wild boars 3) was extracted and isolates were then genotyped through PCR of mitochondrial genes ND1 and CO1 and then sequenced. The investigation lead us to highlight a CE prevalence of 75.3% in sheep with 10.4% of fertility. Sequencing of mitochondrial genes showed that all sheep were infected by the G1 strain of E. granulosus. Prevalence in cattle was 41.5%, with 2.6% fertility. G7 strain (pig strain) was recovered only in 2 cattle, while G1 (sheep strain) was found in all other specimens. In horses, hydatids were recovered in 4 out of 95 horses examined (P 4.2%). Hydatids from the positive animals showed a different morphology, and these differences were confirmed by the results of sequencing and genotyping. DNA extracted from hydatids of the 3 horses that harboured small sterile cysts, were identified as belonging to G1strain, while DNA isolated from the other positive horse showed a 100% homology with the G4 strain (horse strain). The survey carried out on pigs from intensive farming allowed us to detect the absence of E. granulosus infection, while a total CE prevalence of 11.1% in pigs home slaughtered was detected, with a fertility of 7.6%. An overall prevalence of 3.7% was found in the wild boars examined. Out of 39 pig isolates sequenced 5.1% belonged to G7 (pig strain) while 94.9% belonged to sheep strain. All isolates from wild boars were found belonging to G1strain.
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