Nosadini, Romano and Tonolo, Giancarlo (2004) Relationship between blood glucose control, pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 15 (1 suppl.), S1-S5. eISSN 1533-3450. Article.
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The present review briefly discusses evidence that the risk of a rapid decline of glomerular function abruptly increases when glycated hemoglobin is steadily higher than 7.5% and postprandial blood glucose is >200 mg/dl. The capacity to accomplish and to maintain steadily tightly controlled blood glucose levels is scanty using the currently implemented hypoglycemic drugs. Moreover, it must be highlighted that most patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly when renal damage does occur, have arterial hypertension. Several studies suggested that the development of ESRD is prevented significantly better by drugs that modulate the renin angiotensin system than by other compounds in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes with overt diabetic nephropathy. However, a recent trial, the study Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), which compared lisinopril, chlorthalidone, and amlodipine in a large population of patients with arterial hypertension, either associated or not with diabetes, demonstrated that the development of both coronary heart diseases and renal complications was equally prevented by the three drugs. One word of caveat, however, needs to be raised concerning one of the results of the ALLHAT study: the higher risk of developing new-onset diabetes among hypertensive patients who are not treated with lisinopril. Even if it is true that this latter side effect was not accompanied by a worse outcome of macrovascular and renal complications during the 5-yr follow-up period, one cannot rule out the possibility that this might be the case during more prolonged periods of follow-up in the future. Thus, the advantage of a lower cost in the treatment of hypertension with diuretics as compared with other drugs, with similar degree of success in the prevention of vascular complications, should be weighed also taking into consideration the burden of a higher rate of occurrence of new-onset diabetes.
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