O'Toole, Alice and Tistarelli, Massimo (2009) Face recognition in humans and machines. In: Tistarelli, Massimo and Li, Stan Z. and Chellappa, Rama (eds). Handbook of remote biometrics for surveillance and security. London, Springer. p. 111-153. (Advances in Pattern Recognition). eISBN 978-1-84882-385-3. Book Section.
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The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.
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