Nadembega, W. M. and Giannella, S. and Simporé, Jacques and Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca and Pietra, Virginio and Bertoli, Ada and Pignatelli, Salvatore and Bellocchi, Maria Concetta and Nikiema, Jean Baptiste and Cappelli, G. and Bere, Augustin and Colizzi, Vittorio and Perno, Carlo Federico and Musumeci, Salvatore (2006) Characterization of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 isolates from non-HAART and HAART treated patients in Burkina Faso. Journal of Medical Virology, Vol. 78 (11), p. 1385-1391. eISSN 1096-9071. Article.
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Non-B HIV subtypes have been estimated to account for 88% of HIV infections in the world. These subtypes are particularly relevant in view of the availability of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, since subtype-specific mutations are associated with drug-resistance in developing countries. Therefore, the pol gene sequences in HIV-1 isolates were examined from the three distinct groups of 39 infected patients from Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso: 17 patients who had not received any antiretroviral therapy (ART); 16 patients received ART, and 6 HIV-infected children, from infected mothers, received a single Nevirapine dose prophylaxis during birth. HIV-1 pol sequencing was successful for 29 samples. As expected, all patients presented the common (non-B subtype) M36I polymorphism and 26/29 (90%) the K20I mutation. Phylogenetic studies showed high predominance of recombinant HIV-1 strains: CRF06_cpx 16/29 (55.17%), CRF02_AG 9/29 (31.03%), A1 2/29 (6.89%), G 1/29 (3.44%), and CRF09_cpx 1/29 (3.44%). Two twins showed, 6 months after birth, a NNRTI-mutation (Y181C/Y). During the same period, the twin mother presented a different NNRTI-mutation (V106I), thus suggesting that the different blood drug concentration may determine a different drug-resistance pathway. Among 17 non-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) patients, 3/17 (17.64%) presented virus with reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations [V118I: 1/17 patients (5.88%), V179E: 2/17 patients (11.76%)]. 10/17 (58.82%) presented virus with minor protease (PR) mutations [L63P: 5/17 patients (29.41%), V77I: 3/17 patients (17.64%), L10I: 2/17 patients (11.76%)]. 4/17 patients did not show any PR and RT mutations (23.52%). Among six HAART-treated patients, 6/6 and 3/6 had M36I and L63LP protease minor subtypes, respectively; and only two (33.33%) presented virus with K103N mutation. The low prevalence of drug-resistant associated mutations in Burkina Faso is encouraging. However, further studies with a larger cohort with a high non-B subtype prevalence are necessary to optimize ART in developing countries.
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