Durand, Jérôme and Scarel, Alessandro and Milani, Barbara and Seraglia, Roberta and Gladiali, Serafino Gabriele and Carfagna, Carla and Binotti, Barbara (2006) Palladium-promoted carbon monoxide/ethylene/styrene terpolymerization reaction: throwing light on the different reactivity of the two alkenes. Helvetica Chimica Acta, Vol. 89 (8), p. 1752-1771. eISSN 1522-2675. Article.
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The catalytic behavior of dicationic bis-chelated PdII complexes, [Pd(NN)2][PF6]2, in the CO/ethylene/styrene terpolymerization reaction is studied in detail. The bidentate N-donor ligands were chosen among 2,2-bipyridine (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (3), their symmetrically substituted derivatives 2, 4, and 5, and 3-alkyl-substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines 6-10. The effect of several parameters (like temperature, CO/ethylene pressure, styrene content, reaction time) was investigated and related to the productivity of the catalytic system, to the relative content of the two olefins in the polymeric chains, and to the molecular mass of the synthesized polyketones. The presence of 1,4-benzoquinone was necessary to reach productivities as high as 16 kg of terpolymer (TP) per gram of Pd. 13C-NMR spectroscopy was useful to characterize the distribution of the two repetitive units along the polymer chain. Terpolymers with prevailingly isolated CO/styrene units in CO/ethylene blocks as well as terpolymers with CO/styrene and CO/ethylene blocks were obtained by varying the reaction conditions. Detailed MALDI-TOF-MS analysis was performed on the CO/ethylene/styrene terpolymers for the first time, and it allowed us to characterize the end groups of the terpolymer chains. The presence of different chain end groups was found to be related to the initial amount of the two alkenes, thus suggesting that different reactions are involved in the initiation and termination steps of the terpolymerization catalytic cycle.
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