Brusatin, Giovanna and Abbotto, Alessandro and Beverina, Luca and Pagani, Giorgio A. and Casalboni, Mauro and Sarcinelli, Felice and Innocenzi, Plinio (2004) Poled sol-gel materials with heterocycle push-pull chromophores that confer enhanced second-order optical nonlinearity. Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 14 (12), p. 1160-1166. eISSN 1616-3028. Article.
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Hybrid organic-inorganic materials doped with zwitterionic push-pull chromophores with high hyperpolarizability have been synthesized by a sol-gel procedure. A large chromophore concentration was reached by using N-(hydroxyethyl)carbazole as a physical spacer (preventing the dye aggregation). Spin-coated doped films were electrically poled and second harmonic generation measurements performed in situ. During the thermally assisted poling under a N2 atmosphere, only the carbazole molecules degraded. Second-harmonic generation measurements gave an estimation of the nonlinear coefficient, r33, of 38 pm V-1 at 1064 nm.
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