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Diversity of Phytophthora species from declining Mediterranean maquis vegetation, including two new species, Phytophthora crassamura and P. ornamentata sp. nov.

Scanu, Bruno and Linaldeddu, Benedetto Teodoro and Deidda, Antonio and Jung, Thomas (2015) Diversity of Phytophthora species from declining Mediterranean maquis vegetation, including two new species, Phytophthora crassamura and P. ornamentata sp. nov. PLoS One, Vol. 10 (12), e0143234. ISSN 1932-6203. Article.

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DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143234

Abstract

The Mediterranean basin is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot accounting for more than 25,000 plant species that represent almost 10% of the world’s vascular flora. In particular, the maquis vegetation on Mediterranean islands and archipelagos constitutes an important resource of the Mediterranean plant diversity due to its high rate of endemism. Since 2009, a severe and widespread dieback and mortality of Quercus ilex trees and several other plant species of the Mediterranean maquis has been observed in the National Park of La Maddalena archipelago (northeast Sardinia, Italy). Infected plants showed severe decline symptoms and a significant reduction of natural regeneration. First studies revealed the involvement of the highly invasive wide-host range pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi and several fungal pathogens. Subsequent detailed research led to a better understanding of these epidemics showing that multiple Phytophthora spp. were involved, some of them unknown to science. In total, nine Phytophthora species were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples collected from around symptomatic trees and shrubs including Asparagus albus, Cistus sp., Juniperus phoenicea, J. oxycedrus, Pistacia lentiscus and Rhamnus alaternus. Based on morphological characters, growth-temperature relations and sequence analysis of the ITS and cox1 gene regions, the isolates were identified as Phytophthora asparagi, P. bilorbang, P. cinnamomi, P. cryptogea, P. gonapodyides, P. melonis, P. syringae and two new Clade 6 taxa which are here described as P. crassamura sp. nov. and P. ornamentata sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests supported their possible involvement in the severe decline that is currently threatening the Mediterranean maquis vegetation in the La Maddalena archipelago.

Item Type:Article
ID Code:11720
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords:Phytophthora, rhizosphere, phylogenetic analysis, trees, Oogonia, forests, plants, seedlings
Subjects:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/12 Patologia vegetale
Divisions:001 Università di Sassari > 01-a Nuovi Dipartimenti dal 2012 > Agraria
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1932-6203
Copyright Holders:© 2015 Scanu et al.
Deposited On:26 May 2017 10:47

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