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A Study on the cardio-metabolic risk factors in vietnamese females with long-term vegan diet

Nguyen, Hai Quy Tram (2017) A Study on the cardio-metabolic risk factors in vietnamese females with long-term vegan diet. Doctoral Thesis.

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Abstract

A study of the cardio- metabolic risk factors in Vietnamese females with vegan diet.
Background. Numerous studies have shown that vegan diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of vegan diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors and the association between duration of vegan diet and those risk factors, are still unclear.
Objectives. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and influence of duration of vegan diet on cardio- metabolic risk factors.
Materials and Methods. 144 Buddhist nuns aged 20-75 years with duration of vegan diet ranged 10-70 years, were screened for cardio-metabolic risk factors. They were compared with 68 age-matched women 22-84 years of age on non-vegan diet.
Cardio-metabolic risk factors were assessed, including BMI, WC, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, plasma concentration of TC, LDL.C, HDL.C, TG, non-HDL.C, TC/HDL.C, LDL.C/HDL.C, TG/HDL.C, hsCRP, IMT of carotid artery and ischemic heart disease detected by ECG.
Results.
1. Cardiovascular disease risk factors of female in vegan group
There was no significant difference in the mean BMI between vegan and control group (21.9 ± 3.1 vs 21.09 ± 2.50, p > 0.05). The prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 23) in vegan group was significantly higher than in control group (34.7% vs 10.3%, p < 0.05).
There was significant difference in the mean WC between vegan and control group (81.2 ±13.0 vs 74.18 ± 7.14cm, p < 0.05). The prevalence of android obesity (WC ≥ 80 cm) in vegan group was higher than in control group (53.5% vs 20.6%, p < 0.05).
The prevalence of hyper ABP (SBP and/or DBP) in vegan group was higher than in control group (26.45% vs 11.8 %, p < 0.05). The average SBP in vegan group was higher than that in control group (120.9±19.50 vs 115.59 ± 17.22 mmHg, p < 0.05)
The prevalence of ABP ≥ 130/85 mmHg (metabolic syndrome) in Vegan group was higher than in control group (34.03 % vs 26.47 %, p < 0.05).
The average fasting glucose in Vegan group was higher than in control group (5.00 ±1.4 vs 4.67 ± 0.98 mmol/l, p <0.05). The prevalence of hyperglycemia (based on fasting glucose) in Vegan group was higher than in control group (13.2% vs 10.3%, p < 0.05).
There were significant differences in HbA1c levels between two groups. The average HbA1c in Vegan group was higher than in control group (5.9 ±0.9 vs 4.3 ± 0.90 %, p < 0.05). The prevalence of hyperglycemia (based on HbA1c) in Vegan group was higher than in control group (45.1% vs 13.2%, p < 0.05); prediabetes was 34% in Vegan group and 10.3% in control group.
The average fasting insulinemia in Vegan group was higher than that in control group (6.9 ± 4.3 vs 5.55 ± 2.13 µU/ml, p < 0.05). The proportion of fasting insulin ≥ 12 µU/ml in Vegan group was 7.6%.
The average HOMA-IR index in Vegan group was higher than in control group (1.67±1.62 vs 1.16 ± 0.55, p < 0.05). The proportion of HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 in Vegan group was higher than control group (9.7% vs 1.5%, p < 0.05).
The mean TC in vegan group was significantly lower than in control group (4.8±1.11 vs 5.31±1.32 mmol/l, p < 0.05). The proportion of TG ( ≥ 1.7 mmol/l) in Vegan group was significantly lower than in control group (43.8% vs 63.2%, p < 0.05). The proportion of LDL.C (≥ 3.4 mmol/L) in Vegan group was significantly lower than in control group (20.1% vs 41.1. p < 0.05).
The average HDL.C in Vegan group was significantly lower than in control group (1.2 ± 0.2 vs 1.35 ± 0.39 mmol/l, p < 0.05). The proportion of HDL-C (< 1.3 mmol/L) in Vegan group was significantly higher than in control group (60.4 % vs 45.59%, p < 0.05).
The mean non-HDL.C in Vegan group was significantly lower than in the control group (3.6 ± 1.00 vs 3.97 ± 1.20 mmol/l, p < 0.05). The proportion of non-HDL.C (≥ 3.4 mmol/L) in Vegan group was significantly lower than in control group (50.7% vs 67.65 % p < 0.05).
The average IMTc in Vegan group was thinner than in control group (0.64 ± 0.39 mm vs 0.73 ± 0.11 mm, p < 0.05).
The prevalence of MS (+) in Vegan group was significantly higher than in controls (31.35% vs 2.9%, p < 0.001).
2. The prediction of age appeared the cardio-metabolic risk factors in study groups. Benefits of Vegan diet with respect to the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors were studied by using the ROC curves for predicting the age cut-off points between Vegan group and control group to; BP (58 vs 52 years), TC (61 vs 44 years), LDL.C (62 vs 44 years), non-HDL.C (46 vs 35 years), LDL.C/HDL.C (46 vs 39 years), CIMT (61 vs 56 years), respectively. Vegan diet seems to be disadvantageous towards prediabetes (43 vs 49 years), HOMA-IR (44 vs 68 years), TG (43 vs 53 years), hsCRP (50 vs 57 years) and MS (44 vs 68 years).
3. The relationship between duration of vegan diet and the cardio-metabolic risk factors with predicted values in Vegan females. BMI was 20 yrs, WC was 30 yrs, SPB was 40 yrs, Hyper SBP and / SDP was 41 yrs, IMTc was 40 yrs, IHD (+) was 28 yrs, CRP was 49 yrs. Prediabetes was 18 yrs and diabetes was 42 yrs, IR was 22 yrs. Dyslipidemia: TC was 29 yrs, TC was 27 yrs, decrease HDL.C was 27 yrs, increase LDL.C was 44 yrs and atheroclerosis was 18 yrs.
MS (+) was 30 yrs.
There were correlations between duration of vegan diet and cardio- metabolic risk factors including BMI (r = 0.374), WC (r = 0.411), SBP (r = 0.539), FG (r = 0.312), HbA1c (r = 0.403), lipid profile (r = 0.307 - 0.525), hsCRP (r = 0.486) and IMTc (r = 0.463), in which the duration of vegan diet was considered as an independent risk factor for hyperglycemia.
Conclusions. A decrease in multiple cardio-metabolic risk factors such as BP, TG, LDL.C, non-HDL.C, LDL.C/HDL.C and cIMT… was associated with vegetarian diet in female subjects. However, a long-term Vegan diet could increase metabolic syndrome (obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, decreased HDL) in this population. These problems required an urgent need for greater public awareness on risk factors that correlated with the duration of vegan diet.

Item Type:Doctoral Thesis
ID Code:11693
Contributors:Formato, Marilena
Publisher:Universita' degli studi di Sassari
Uncontrolled Keywords:Vegan diet, cardio-metabolic risk factors
Subjects:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/10 Biochimica
Divisions:001 Università di Sassari > 01-a Nuovi Dipartimenti dal 2012 > Scienze Biomediche
Cicli, scuole e corsi:Ciclo 29 > Life sciences and biotechnologies
Deposited On:18 Sep 2017 12:30

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