Jung, Thomas and Jung, Marília Horta and Scanu, Bruno and Seress, Diána and Kovács, Gábor M. and Maia, Cristiana and Pérez-Sierra, Ana M. and Chang, Tuntschu and Chandelier, Anne and Heungens, Kurt and Van Poucke, Kris and Abad Campos, Paloma and León, Maela C. and Cacciola, Santa Olga and Bakonyi, József (2017) Six new Phytophthora species from ITS Clade 7a including two sexually functional heterothallic hybrid species detected in natural ecosystems in Taiwan. Persoonia, Vol. 38 , p. 100-135. ISSN 0031-5850. eISSN 1878-9080. Article.
During a survey of Phytophthora diversity in natural ecosystems in Taiwan six new species were detected. Multigene phylogeny based on the nuclear ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 and the mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to ITS Clade 7a with P. europaea, P. uniformis, P. rubi and P. cambivora being their closest relatives. All six new species differed from each other and from related species by a unique combination of morphological characters, the breeding system, cardinal temperatures and growth rates. Four homothallic species, P. attenuate, P. flexuosa, P. formosa and P. intricata, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of healthy forests of Fagus hayatae, Quercus glandulifera, Q. tarokoensis, Castanopsis carlesii, Chamaecyparis formosensis and Araucaria cunninghamii. Two heterothallic species, P. xheterohybrida and P. xincrassata, were exclusively detected in three forest streams. All P. xincrassata isolates belonged to the A2 mating type while isolates of P. xheterohybrida represented both mating types with oospore abortion rates according to Mendelian ratios (4–33 %). Multiple heterozygous positions in their ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 gene sequences indicate that P. xheterohybrida, P. xincrassata and P. cambivora are interspecific hybrids. Consequently, P. cambivora is re-described as P. xcambivora without nomenclatural act. Pathogenicity trials on seedlings of Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Q. suber indicate that all six new species might pose a potential threat to European forests.
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