Cividini, Federico and Pesi, Rossana and Chaloin, Laurent and Allegrini, Simone and Camici, Marcella and Cros-Perrial, Emeline and Dumontet, Charles and Jordheim, Lars Petter and Tozzi, Maria Grazia (2015) The Purine analog fludarabine acts as a cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II inhibitor. Biochemical pharmacology, Vol. 94 (2), p. 63-68. ISSN 0006-2952. eISSN 1873-2968. Article.
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For several years the IMP/GMP-preferring cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II (cN-II) has been considered as a therapeutic target in oncology. Indeed, various reports have indicated associations between cN-II expression level and resistance to anticancer agents in several cancer cell lines and in patients affected with neoplasia, mainly by hematologic malignancies. In this paper we present evidence showing that, among the commonly used cytotoxic nucleoside analogs, fludarabine can act as a cN-II inhibitor. In vitro studies using the wild type recombinant cN-II demonstrated that fludarabine inhibited enzymatic activity in a mixed manner (Ki 0.5 mM and Ki′ 9 mM), whereas no inhibition was observed with clofarabine and cladribine. Additional experiments with mutant recombinant proteins and an in silico molecular docking indicated that this inhibition is due to an interaction with a regulatory site of cN-II known to interact with adenylic compounds. Moreover, synergy experiments between fludarabine and 6-mercaptopurine in human follicular lymphoma (RL) and human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells transfected with control or cN-II-targeting shRNA-encoding plasmids, showed synergy in control cells and antagonism in cells with decreased cN-II expression. This is in line with the hypothesis that fludarabine acts as a cN-II inhibitor and supports the idea of using cN-II inhibitors in association with other drugs to increase their therapeutic effect and decrease their resistance.
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