Skorokhod, Oleksii A. and Barrera, Valentina and Heller, Regine and Carta, Franco and Turrini, Franco and Arese, Paolo and Schwarzer, Evelin (2014) Malarial pigment hemozoin impairs chemotactic motility and transendothelial migration of monocytes via 4-hydroxynonenal. Free radical biology and medicine, Vol. 75 , p. 210-221. ISSN 0891-5849. eISSN 1873-4596. Article.
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Natural hemozoin, nHZ, is avidly phagocytosed in vivo and in vitro by human monocytes. The persistence of the undigested β-hematin core of nHZ in the phagocyte lysosome for long periods of time modifies several cellular immune functions. Here we show that nHZ phagocytosis by human primary monocytes severely impaired their chemotactic motility toward MCP-1, TNF, and FMLP, by approximately 80% each, and their diapedesis across a confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cell layer toward MCP-1 by 45±5%. No inhibition was observed with latex-fed or unfed monocytes. Microscopic inspection revealed polarization defects in nHZ-fed monocytes due to irregular actin polymerization. Phagocytosed nHZ catalyzes the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and generation of the highly reactive derivative 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Similar to nHZ phagocytosis, the exposure of monocytes to in vivo-compatible 4-HNE concentrations inhibited cell motility in both the presence and the absence of chemotactic stimuli, suggesting severe impairment of cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, 4-HNE conjugates with the cytoskeleton proteins β-actin and coronin-1A were immunochemically identified in nHZ-fed monocytes and mass spectrometrically localized in domains of protein–protein interactions involved in cytoskeleton reorganization and cell motility. The molecular and functional modifications of actin and coronin by nHZ/4-HNE may also explain impaired phagocytosis, another motility-dependent process previously described in nHZ-fed monocytes. Further studies will show whether impaired monocyte motility may contribute to the immunodepression and the frequent occurrence of secondary infections observed in malaria patients.
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