Bou Zeidan, Marc and Zara, Giacomo and Viti, Carlo and Decorosi, Francesca and Mannazzu, Ilaria Maria and Budroni, Marilena and Giovannetti, Luciana and Zara, Severino (2014) L-Histidine inhibits biofilm formation and FLO11- associated phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts. PLoS One, Vol. 9 (11), e112141. eISSN 1932-6203. Article.
Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an innate diversity of FLO11 which codes for a highly hydrophobic and anionic cell-wall glycoprotein with a fundamental role in biofilm formation. In this study, 380 nitrogen compounds were administered to three S. cerevisiae flor strains handling FLO11 alleles with different expression levels. S. cerevisiae strain S288c was used as the reference strain as it cannot produce FLO11p. The flor strains generally metabolized amino acids and dipeptides as the sole nitrogen source, although with some exceptions regarding L-histidine and histidine containing dipeptides. L-histidine completely inhibited growth and its effect on viability was inversely related to FLO11 expression. Accordingly, L-histidine did not affect the viability of the Dflo11 and S288c strains. Also, L-histidine dramatically decreased air–liquid biofilm formation and adhesion to polystyrene of the flor yeasts with no effect on the transcription level of the FLO11 gene. Moreover, L-histidine modified the chitin and glycans content on the cell-wall of flor yeasts. These findings reveal a novel biological activity of L-histidine in controlling the multicellular behavior of yeasts.
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