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The Emergence of Schmallenberg virus across Culicoides communities and ecosystems in Europe

Balenghien, Thomas and Pagès, Nonito and Goffredo, Maria and Carpenter, Simon and Augot, Denis and Jacquier, Elisabeth and Talavera, Sandra and Monaco, Federica and Depaquit, Jérôme and Grillet, Colette and Pujols, Joan and Satta, Giuseppe and Kasbari, Mohamed and Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure and Izzo, Francesca and Alkan, Cigdem and Delécolle, Jean-Claude and Quaglia, Michela and Charrel, Rémi and Polci, Andrea and Bréard, Emmanuel and Federici, Valentina and Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine and Garros, Claire (2014) The Emergence of Schmallenberg virus across Culicoides communities and ecosystems in Europe. Preventive veterinary medicine, Vol. 116 (4), p. 360-369. ISSN 0167-5877. eISSN 1873-1716. Article.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.03.007


Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel arboviral pathogen, has emerged and spread across Europe since 2011 inflicting congenital deformities in the offspring of infected adult ruminants. Several species of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of SBV through studies conducted in northern Europe. In this study Culicoides from SBV outbreak areas of mainland France and Italy (Sardinia) were screened for viral RNA. The role of both C. obsoletus and the Obsoletus complex (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) in transmission of SBV were confirmed in France and SBV was also discovered in a pool of C. nubeculosus for the first time, implicating this species as a potential vector. While collections in Sardinia were dominated by C. imicola, only relatively small quantities of SBV RNA were detected in pools of this species and conclusive evidence of its potential role in transmission is required.
In addition to these field-based studies, infection rates in colony-derived individuals of C. nubeculosus and field-collected C. scoticus are also examined in the laboratory. Rates of infection in C. nubeculosus were low, confirming previous studies, while preliminary examination of C. scoticus demonstrated that while this species can replicate SBV to a potentially transmissible level, further work is required to fully define comparative competence between species in the region. Finally, the oral competence for SBV of two abundant and widespread mosquito vector species in the laboratory is assessed. Neither Aedes albopictus nor Culex pipiens were demonstrated to replicate SBV to transmissible levels and appear unlikely to play a major role in transmission. Other vector competence data produced from studies across Europe to date is then comprehensively reviewed and compared with that generated previously for bluetongue virus.

Item Type:Article
ID Code:10100
Uncontrolled Keywords:Arbovirus, vector competence, Ceratopogonidae, Orthobunyavirus, Bunyaviridae
Subjects:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/06 Parassitologia e malattie parassitarie degli animali
Divisions:002 Altri enti e centri di ricerca del Nord Sardegna > Istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale della Sardegna, Sassari > Centro di referenza nazionale per la zootecnia biologica, Sassari
Deposited On:15 Sep 2014 17:36

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