Fadda, Costantino and Sanguinetti, Anna Maria and Del Caro, Alessandra and Collar, Concha and Piga, Antonio <1965- > (2014) Bread staling: updating the view. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety, Vol. 13 (4), p. 473-492. eISSN 1541-4337. Article.
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Staling of bread is cause of significant product waste in the world. We reviewed the literature of the last 10 y with the aim to give an up-to-date overview on processing/storage parameters, antistaling ingredients, sourdough technology, and measurement methods of the staling phenomenon. Many researchers have been focusing their interest on the selection of ingredients able to retard staling, mainly hydrocolloids, waxy wheat flours (WWF), and enzymes, but different efforts have been made to understand the molecular basis of bread staling with the help of various measurement methods. Results obtained confirm the central role of amylopectin retrogradation and water redistribution within the different polymers in determining bread staling, but highlighted also the importance of other flour constituents, such as proteins and nonstarch polysaccharides. Data obtained with thermal, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography, and colorimetry analysis have pointed out the need to encourage the use of one or more of these techniques in order to better understand the mechanisms of staling. Results so far obtained have provided new insight on bread staling, but the phenomenon has not been fully elucidated so far.
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