Borghero, Giuseppe and Pugliatti, Maura and Marrosu, Francesco and Marrosu, Maria Giovanna and Murru, Maria Rita and Floris, Gianluca and Cannas, Antonino and Parish, Leslie D. and Occhineri, Patrizia and Cau, Tea B. and Loi, Daniela and Ticca, Anna F. and Traccis, Sebastiano and Manera, Umberto and Canosa, Antonio and Moglia, Cristina and Calvo, Andrea and Barberis, Marco and Brunetti, Maura and Pliner, Hannah A. and Renton, Alan E. and Nalls, Mike A. and Traynor, Brian J. and Restagno, Gabriella and Chiò, Adriano (2014) Genetic architecture of ALS in Sardinia. Neurobiology of Aging, Vol. 35 (12), 2882.e7-2882.e12. ISSN 0197-4580. Article.
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Conserved populations, such as Sardinians, displaying elevated rates of familial or sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) provide unique information on the genetics of the disease. Our aim was to describe the genetic profile of a consecutive series of ALS patients of Sardinian ancestry. All ALS patients of Sardinian ancestry, identified between 2008 and 2013 through the Italian ALS Genetic Consortium, were eligible to be included in the study. Patients and controls underwent the analysis of TARDBP, C9ORF72, SOD1, and FUS genes. Genetic mutations were identified in 155 out of 375 Sardinian ALS cases (41.3%), more commonly the p.A382T and p.G295S mutations of TARDBP and the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion of C9ORF72. One patient had both p.G295S and p.A382T mutations of TARDBP and 8 carried both the heterozygous p.A382T mutation of TARDBP and a repeat expansion of C9ORF72. Patients carrying the p.A382T and the p.G295S mutations of TARDBP and the C9ORF72 repeat expansion shared distinct haplotypes across these loci. Patients with cooccurrence of C9ORF72 and TARDBP p.A382T missense mutation had a significantly lower age at onset and shorter survival. More than 40% of all cases on the island of Sardinia carry a mutation of an ALS-related gene, representing the highest percentage of ALS cases genetically explained outside of Scandinavia. Clinical phenotypes associated with different genetic mutations show some distinctive characteristics, but the heterogeneity between and among families carrying the same mutations implies that ALS manifestation is influenced by other genetic and nongenetic factors.
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